Sunday, June 23, 2013

Massage@Santai Station@Pusat Sumber UiTM Kampus Bandaraya Melaka







Waktu perkhidmatan Pusat Sumber terkini..

Perkhidmatan Pusat Sumber UiTM KBM akan melanjutkan waktu operasi sempena minggu peperiksaan bermula dari 17.6.2013. Waktu perkhidmatan adalah seperti berikut:
Isnin-Jumaat : 8.30pg - 9.45mlm
Sabtu & Ahad : 10.00pg - 2.45ptg

Selamat menduduki peperiksaan...all the best. Sila jaga kesihatan anda semua...Kurangkan aktiviti luar...
 

PENANGGUHAN KULIAH AKIBAT JEREBU


Kepada semua warga UiTM (Akademik dan Pentadbiran) Melaka

PENANGGUHAN KULIAH AKIBAT JEREBU

Merujuk kepada situasi semasa mengenai keadaan jerebu yang telah sampai ke paras bahaya di beberapa tempat di negeri Melaka ketika ini serta keputusan Kerajaan Negeri Melaka yang telah mengumumkan penutupan sekolah, Pengurusan Tertinggi UiTM Melaka telah memutuskan agar semua kuliah ditangguhkan mulai esok (Isnin 24 Jun 2013) sehingga pengumuman baru dikeluarkan. Namun begitu, urusan pentadbiran harian berjalan seperti biasa.

Walau bagaimanapun, semua warga UiTM Melaka dinasihatkan senantiasa memakai penutup hidung ketika berada di luar rumah dan pejabat untuk memastikan kesihatan tidak terjejas.

Sekian, untuk makluman dan tindakan


PROF. MADYA DR. MOHD ADNAN HASHIM
Rektor
UiTM Melaka

Saturday, June 22, 2013

Web 2.0 adoption : Public libraries (Malaysia) experience and practices

Purpose for Web 2.0 adoption
i) Directive from the government (state government / government agencies)
Most of the interviewees stated that the development of Web 2.0 applications are built upon the directive issued by the government, whether it is the federal government, state governments or government bodies such as the Malaysian Administrative Modernisation and Management Planning Unit (MAMPU) and the Multimedia Development Corporation (MDeC). The IT officer in Kelantan Public library informed, “facebook application was started based on a directive from MAMPU...all government agencies need to have a social media network...so that all announcements can be done easily”.  The Malacca Public Library, IT officer mention that “Melaka State government has urged all government departments to have social networking sites like Facebook for closer ties with the community. It is also from the Web 2.0 application such Facebook, it is to facilitate the library to a wider range of promotions, fast and most importantly it is free”.

In contrast with Pahang Public Library, the development of Web 2.0 application such as Facebook and Blog is because of the criteria set by MDeC to assess the government agencies portal. In the assessment, if a governmental agencies portal has links to social media, it will be an advantage. Therefore, it encouraged the Pahang Public Library to develop  social media applications like Facebook to their user as one of the service. This was also the case at the Selangor Public Library and Johor Public Library.  The Selangor Public Library IT officer stated "I am monitoring the activities in facebook, and my staff will monitor the technical side only. Through this approach, the information given and received is updated every day so that the delivery of quality information is better and people will not dispute the Selangor Public Library Facebook. Through this approach also, the Selangor Public Library web portal including Facebook have received 4 stars award from MDeC and won the Innovation Web site award from MAMPU”.

ii) Facilitate the promotion and dissemination of information and library activities
The use of social media in disseminating information or even promoting, is very quick, easy, cheap and simple. This fact is recognized through interviews with all public libraries representatives in Malaysia. According to the Public Library Kelantan officer, “these applications facilitate the making of a library for communication or promote library activities, event or any information in faster and efficient way. By using this application, the cost of promotion and spreading information are very minimal cost rather than using the conventional medium such as making banners, bunting, advertise in newspapers or radio and so on. At the Malacca Public Library, the officer mentioned “Web 2.0 also facilitates the library to a wider range of promotions, fast and most importantly it is free”. This statement was also supported by the participant from the National Library of Malaysia. According to the officer, “the main objective and purpose of using this application is to promote library activities. This application can be considered as a free platform especially for promotion, and everyone nowadays are using this application. If the libraries use a promotion method such as advertisement in newspapers and TV, it need a big cost”. Moreover, the interviewee from Selangor Public Library also mentioned, “at the present time PPAS has conducted many activities and programs implemented on an ad-hoc basis. With this application, it make it easier for PPAS to broadcast and promote the ad-hoc programme immediately and directly to customers and it also saves time and operational costs rather than using the conventional method.”  Perbadanan Perpustakaan Awam Sabah dan Perbadanan Perpustakaan Awam Perlis also stated the purpose of develop Web 2.0 application is to provide and disseminate library information, news and event for library user information.

It was slightly different at the Penang Public Library, they used this application not only to promote or disseminate library news but also they help to deliver as many current issues and programs conducted in the vicinity of Penang or promote other government activities/events. They get all this information through the state government calendar activities and government-related bodies and organizations around Penang. However for the Terengganu Public Library, it does not have a Web 2.0 application for use to dissemination information, activities or any other information about the library. This library uses a different approach, through the SMS service for the purpose of disseminating information to their users. The libraries also now planning to inform the user about late returning or any membership information through this SMS service. At present the library could spread SMS to more than 48,000 users at one time. By using this method, the spread of library information can be implemented more easily, quickly, effectively and at low cost. For example, in the case of overdue of books, library can SMS to their customer at the rate of RM0.04 cents perperson, and the process is easier and faster instead of give a reminder letter.

iii) Socializing and networking purpose (wider audience)
Web 2.0 offers the latest trend in forming new relationships (networking) and also on socially (socializing) online. According to Kelantan Public Library officer, “this application is also more friendly and well-known to the user especially among teenager, and information spreading will be more wide and quick. For example, when spreading the Library post on facebook, then all customers who have become members will get to see that information/news and it can also be seen by their friends, through the Facebook wall. If their friends click on the information/news, so indirectly it will be displayed on the wall and can be seen next by their peers”. This process will be repeated and facilitate the acceptance of such information to the user and it can generate a new networking between library, existing user and new user. In addition, the officer at the National Library of Malaysia mentioned “hopefully by using this application it can  attract more user to join/participate in the libraries activities, borrow book etc.”
While for the Perbadanan Perpustakaan Awam Negeri Sembilan, they use the application to form a great or huge relationship in the dissemination of information between users and library. As well as Perbadananan Perpustakaan Awam Selangor, as mentioned by the officer, “the social media it can  create two-way communication between libraries and users...through this network also, the user is free and easy to give suggestions, share their ideas, express opinions and give comment”. While for Pustaka Sarawak, according to the officer, “the main objective of developing this application is to reach out to the community of users and society at Sarawak, creating a network or two-way communication between the library and the community and also makes promotion or dissemination of information or activities to be organized or are being organized.” In addition the officer from Johor Public library stated “the main purpose of the development of this  application is to realize a communication network that is easier between the library and users. It was also aimed to have closer relations with library users”








Friday, June 21, 2013

Issues on Social Media : Professionally and Personally

Libraries play an important role not only as a building material storage, but as the process of delivery of various forms of information such as books, journals, electronic, microform, online learning, etc, to their community. In the modern and sophisticated era, particularly in the era of the Internet and Web 2.0, services and facilities are offered more widely, demanding and complicated. The development of Web 2.0 technology also requires libraries to make changes in the delivery of information in a more up to-date, reliable, and dynamic manner which can attract their users. Web 2.0 technology is now a popular trend  and become a phenomena used by all segments of society in the world to socialize. The term of web 2.0 was first defined by Tim O’Reilly and John Batelle that looked at the dot-com bubble survivors in 2004 and saw in them an evolutionary triumph that they identified as Web 2.0 (O’Reilly, 2005). The term implies that Web 2.0 differs from an earlier web by being participatory, interactive, instantaneous, and emphasizes online collaboration and sharing among users. It is often termed “Social Media” and is seen as a place where people can connect and share the personal and day-to-day details of their lives with old friends, new friends, and complete strangers (Nesta and Jia Mi, 2010). 2 years later, O’Reilly defined Web 2.0 as an emerging suite of applications that are interactive, context-rich, and easy to use (O’Reilly, 2007). In a library environment, this technology or application is termed Library 2.0. The term “Library 2.0” was believed to be defined by Michael Casey in 2005 on his LibrayCrunch blog. According to Chad and Miller (2005), Library 2.0 as a concept, very different from the service we know today, that operates according to the expectations of today’s users. They state that with this concept the library will make information available wherever and whenever the user requires it. In addition, based on report form Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL), Research Planning and Review Committee, “social networking sites (SNS) such as Facebook is one of the most important technological changes that are affecting academic libraries at present and in the near future”.
A recently published report about online usage in Malaysia has revealed that the top visited web sites in Malaysia are social networking sites (comScore, 2009). The report also shows that as at mid-2009, there were 9.3 million Malaysian (out of 25 million of population) age 15 and above who accessed the internet from various locations and consumed an average of 1,066 pages of content and spending nearly 14 hours online during the month (Mohd Hafiz, Watsons and Edwards, 2010). According to Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission, in 2008, the penetration index of internet access among Malaysians has reached 62.8 per cent, a staggering 15 per cent of increase in 12 months while 50 per cent of broadband access will be achieved by 2010. Moreover, recent data from the Malaysian Administrative Modernisation and Management Planning Unit (MAMPU) from 1 to March 30, 2011, which monitors the network on ICT in Putrajaya Campus Network (PCN), found a total of 19.96 million transactions were performed on the access sites of social networking website. These monitoring found 3 access to the highest on the social networking website that were : profile.ak.fbcdn.net, www.facebook.com and static.ak.fbcdn.net. From this data and statistics showing that Malaysia people, amongst the fast developed Asian countries use the social networking as a medium of communication and sharing information.  
Therefore, libraries need to be more exposed to these developments and provide as many Web 2.0 applications to get closer to their users and improve the quality of online information delivery. But to successfull implemented this application in library not so easy and need carefully planning, design and the purpose of having this application. However, there are many big issues and difficulties might be faces by the librarian and libraries management. According to Dwivedi, Williams, Ramdani, Suraj Niranjan, Vishanth Weerakkody (2010), in their study of Understanding Factors for Success adoption of Web 2.0 application, they mentioned perceived usefulness and ease-of-use are significant predictors of behavioural intention to adopt Web 2.0 applications, users‟ behavioural intention influences the usage of these applications, and ease-of-use influence behavioural intention both directly and indirectly through influencing perceived usefulness. So this is by mean, the issues for the libraries and  librarian is how they want to adopt this technologies can be usefulness for their user, is it this application can be easy-of-use by both parties, user and also others librarian. And then, are the librarian are alert what are the user behaviour intention for use this application. There are 2 professional issues here that face by the librarian. The first one is the perceived  usefulness for the user. In my opinion, it means, what is the information, library resources or content  that could supply to these application that useful for user. Libraries and librarian must have a standard guidelines to input all of this into their social media website. They cannot put unusefull information or anything that not relate to their services or to their purpose of having the social media application. The second one is, ease-of-use. I think this have relation with the knowledge of the social media for those who create the social media. To be clear, the librarian must attend at least a basic training for the function of the social media. With the knowledge that their gain from the related training, it can easy to them to create social media application in easy way and also easy to use by the user. However, there are also issues form the personal site. The personally issues that face by librarian is, the motivation or self initiative to create this social media application. As we know, librarian have a lot of their core jobs or work. So they must have extra motivation or to self intiative among them to provide and maintain this services to their user. In addition,  most of them also are not so expert in IT.  Maybe for create an account for social media like facebook or youtube, or yahoo mesengger is easy. But not all the function in this social media are known by the librarian. So, sometimes it give difficulties to them to use all this function in the social media application.
On the other side,  there are study about the changing role of librarians in the Digital World by Muhammad Arif and Khalid Mahmood (2010). In their study, they recommended, the ICT infrastructure in the libraries should be upgraded and training programmes on technical aspects and implementation of Web 2.0 technologies should be arranged on regular basis. In my opinion, from the finding this is a profesionnaly issues that must be face by the libraries. The libraries should upgrade the ICT infrastucture especially their Internet bandwiths connection into the libraries. So, with the upgrading, the issues on the limitation of network capasity  or Internet speed to run this application will be overcome. Beside that, in my opinion also, an as my practicing in my library, if the server or network capacity not so enough, and then if we want to store let say video collection to be uploaded as a podcast/vodcast services, so the network will be slow and can interrupt for other services. In addition, i also had conducted some interview regarding this issue among public states libraries in Malaysia, most of them mention that ICT infratructure in their organization is not enough to support and running for all web 2.0 application. They mention that they have their current  services to be mainatin such as Library website, Online Catalog, Library Management System, etc. So, for the social media, most of the public libraries just can create or develop the Facebook account since the facebook is free, easy and also not used so much bandwith capacity. However, i found, in some of the publc library in Malaysia are block the use of facebook and also other social media like youtube, myspace and yahoo mesengger in the library, eventhough they provide this service to the user. This is  because, for them, if their user spent more time access the facebook or other social media  using the library network/wifi connection it can make their network become slow and can interrupt their regular services or their job.  This limitation and weaknesses  is also one of the biggest professionnaly issues that they face. In my opinion, the public libraries should not block the accessing to this social media web while they provide this service to their user. This issues can give a bad image to them.
  Another issues that raise by Muhammad Arif and Khalid Mahmood (2010), is training programmes on technical aspects and implementation of Web 2.0 technologies. I am aggree with their statement. Most of the librarian are aware about web 2.0 application. But how to implement or develop all of this web 2.0 application such as blog, podcast/vodcast, RSS, Wikis, social networking sites, Instant messaging, Mashup, etc, can be question. This is also can be a problem to the librarain. Not all of that application is easy to create or develop. Some of them, have too many technical part to be understand by the librarian. So, without a training programmes, the librarian cannot create or develop web 2.0 application in a good way. Library management should send their staf or professional staff (IT manager or Librarian) to a workshop and training of application web 2.0. In that training or workshop, they can get a valuable input or can increase their knowldge on how to develop the web 2.0 application sucessefully in the library. In my interview with Assistant Director (IT Department)  of National Library of Malaysia, Mr Mohd Ikmil Firdauz, he inform me, after attendant the Social Media Workshop organized by University Malaya Library, he and his staff get more clear and understanding of having this application to the Library. Before this, they just create  a social media website just follow the trend now, but after attend the workshop they have a proper guidelines, and objectives to provides the social media applications.
Another professional issues that face by the librarian is about the policy and guidelines of having this application in their organization. From my finding in interview with some of the librarian in Malaysian Public Libraries, non of them dont have a standard policy or refer  to other organization social media policy to develop this application. They mentioned , they just develop by their own initiative and follow the trend only. But some of them mention, in their management meeting, they have disscus about this application and they use the meeting minute as their guidelines for develop web 2.0 application. It also experience in my libraries. We just create facebook account without any policy and  guidelines. In my opinion, without at least a basic guidelines or policy, they dont know what is the purpose, objective or might be they can lost of control of provide a good online service to their user.
As a conclusion, social media or Web 2.0 tool, not just a trend common to the organization but also to every library in the world. Library racing providing or offering this services to their users. But without proper planning, clear objectives, policy, guidelines, training on social media and have a sufficient expertise in developing and maintaining these services, quality services of these application can be affected and the delivery of information to be executed can not be achieved.



References
Allard, S. (2009). Library managers and information in world 2.0. Library Management, 30(1), 57-68.
Allard, S. (2009). Library managers and information in world 2.0. Library Management, 30(1), 57-68.
Barker, P. (2008). Library 2.0 initiatives in academic libraries. Electronic Library, the, 26(5), 758-759.
Cardwell, P. (2009). The information society: A study in continuity and change (5th ed.). Library Management, 30(6), 495-496.
Chawner, B. (2008). How to use web 2.0 in your library. Electronic Library, the, 26(3), 427-428.
Cmor, D. (2010). Academic reference librarians: Getting by with a little help from our (special, public, school, law and medical librarian) friends. Library Management, 31(8), 610-620.
Haycock, K. (2011). Exemplary public library branch managers: Their characteristics and effectiveness. Library Management, 32(4), 266-278.
Holmberg, K., Huvila, I., Maria Kronqvist-Berg, & Gunilla Widén-Wulff. (2009). What is library 2.0? Journal of Documentation, 65(4), 668-681.
Judith Broady-Preston. (2010). The information professional of the future: Polymath or dinosaur? Library Management, 31(1), 66-78.
Kealy, K. (2009). Do library staff have what it takes to be a librarian of the future? Library Management, 30(8), 572-582.
Kent, P. G. (2008). Library 2.0: A guide to participatory library service. Library Management, 29(4), 447-448.
Lan, A. T. (2009). Information literacy meets library 2.0. Library Hi Tech, 27(2), 314-315.
Mahmood, K., & Richardson, J. V. (2011). Adoption of web 2.0 in US academic libraries: A survey of ARL library websites. Program: Electronic Library and Information Systems, 45(4), 365-375.
N.S. Harinarayana, & Vasantha Raju, N. (2010). Web 2.0 features in university library web sites. Electronic Library, the, 28(1), 69-88.
Pennell, K. (2010). The role of flexible job descriptions in succession management. Library Management, 31(4), 279-290.
Peter, E. S., & Tina, T. Y. (2009). Refocusing for the future: Meeting user expectations in a digital age. Library Management, 30(1), 6-24.
Ram, S., John Paul Anbu, K., & Kataria, S. (2011). Responding to user's expectation in the library: Innovative web 2.0 applications at JUIT library: A case study. Program: Electronic Library and Information Systems, 45(4), 452-469.
Sarrafzadeh, M., Martin, B., & Hazeri, A. (2010). Knowledge management and its potential applicability for libraries. Library Management, 31(3), 198-212.
Scupola, A., & Hanne, W. N. (2010). Service innovation in academic libraries: Is there a place for the customers? Library Management, 31(4), 304-318.
Snowball, C. (2008). Enticing teenagers into the library. Library Review, 57(1), 25-35.

Digital Library Initiative


Introduction

Needs of people on the importance of getting information quickly and present a variety of growing. Various combinations of resources are used. Previously, in 1980s people began to get information through Internet but to very limited network. Latest, people can get various information at the fingertips through the use of mobile devices. To help researchers find a variety of sources and information, libraries and academic institutions should consider any methods and initiatives that the most efficient in providing variety of resources and information. Among the methods and initiatives that can be implemented by the library is to provide a platform for digital libraries and this digital libraries are also known as an open access initiatives. Previously, this initiatives is term as an Automated Library (Buckland, 1992) and Hybrid Library (Rusbridge, 1998).  There are many definition of digital library by different researcher, library and information institution, as well as librarian and library professional. According to Waters (1998), Digital libraries are organizations that provide the resources, including the specialized staff, to select, structure, offer intellectual access to, interpret, distribute, preserve the integrity of, and ensure the persistence over time of collections of digital works so that they are readily and economically available for use by a defined community or set of communities. Moreover Suber (2004, 2007), defines digital libraries as an open access  that “digital, online, free of charge and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions”. Many of open access repositories are set up by universities or research institutions to handle their own institutional research resources. Information about the trends and growth of open access repositories and journals are collated from monitoring initiatives comprising ROAR (Registry of Open Access Repositories), Open DOAR (Open Directory of Open Access Repositories), DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals) and Web Ranking of World Repositories by the Cybermetrics Laboratory in Spain.

In Malaysia, Academic Institutions and Library are competing each other to develop Digital Libraries or Open Access initiatives or also known as Information Repositories (IR). Most of the IR in Malaysian academic instituition and library are supply the information and full text of their own collection such as manuscript, thesis, journal article, conference proceeding, etc. In addition some of them are also put their picture album, article from newspaper, and collection of video about their university and library in their IR.  The purpose of develop the IR is not only limited to just supply the information and resource material in their organisation but also as a knowledge sharing among others. Below, table 1 is show a list of  Institutional Repository (IRs) across in Malaysia that listing in DOAR website.

Table 1 : List for Institutional Repositories (IRs) across Malaysia

No
Institutional Repositories
Host
Software
Collection type
Accessibility
1
.MyManuskrip: Digital Library of Malay Manuscripts
Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya (UM), Malaysia
Greenstone
Books; Multimedia
Full Access
2
DSpace@UM

Faculty of Computer Science & Information Technology, University of Malaya (UM), Malaysia

DSpace
Conferences; Theses; Books
Restricted Access
3
ePrints@USM

Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
EPrints
Articles; Conferences; Theses; Unpublished
Restricted Access
4
PTSL UKM Repository

Perpustakaan UKM, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Malaysia
EPrints
Articles; Conferences
Restricted Access
5
UKM Journal Article Repository

National University Of Malaysia Library, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Malaysia
EPrints
Articles
Full Access
6
UM Digital Repository

University of Malaya (UM), Malaysia
EPrints
Articles; Conferences; Multimedia
Restricted Access
7
UniMAP Library Digital Repository

The Library, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Malaysia
DSpace
Articles; Conferences; Theses; Learning Objects; Multimedia; Special
Restricted Access
8
Universiti Putra Malaysia Institutional Repository (PSAS IR)

Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
EPrints
Articles; Conferences; Theses; Learning Objects; Multimedia; Special
Restricted Access
9
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Institutional Repository (UTM Institutional Repository)

UTM Library (Perpustakaan Sultanah Zanariah), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia
EPrints
Articles; Conferences; Theses; Unpublished; Books
Full Access
10
UNITEN (University Tenaga Nasional Digital Repository)

University Tenaga Nasional, Malaysia
DSpace
Articles; Conferences; Theses; Books; Learning Objects; Special
Restricted Access
11
UTHM Institutional Repository

Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Malaysia
EPrints
Articles; Conferences; Theses; Books
Full Access
12
UUM IRepository

Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
EPrints
Articles; Conferences; Theses
Restricted Access
13
WorldFish Center Publications

The WorldFish Center, Malaysia

Articles; References; Conferences; Unpublished; Books; Special
Full Access


To explain in more detail relating to the development or digital library initiative, I will take the example of  Australasian Digital Theses Program (ADT) to show the purpose of the digital library initiatives, thier target user community, subject or domain, collection and content including colection size, source document types, source document formats, metadata used for object description, access interface features (browse, search and display), technology aspects (e.g software used, database system, special h/w, and etc.

Australasian Digital Theses Program (ADT) - http://adt.caul.edu.au/

Purpose and Aim of ADT programme

·         To establish a distributed database of digital versions of theses produced by the postgraduate research students at Australian universities.

·         The theses will be available worldwide via the web. The ideal behind the program is to provide access to, and promote Australian research to the international community.


v  The initial project was funded by an Australian Research Council (ARC):

Research Infrastructure Equipment and Facilities (RIEF) Scheme grant (1997/1998).

The original ADT membership group:

·         University of New South Wales (lead institution)
·         University of Melbourne
·         University of Queensland
·         University of Sydney
·          Australian National University
·         Curtin University of Technology
·         Griffith University

Ø  The ADT concept - initiative of 7 Australian universities in association with the Council of Australian University Librarians (CAUL).
Ø  1998-1999 -The ADT model was developed by the 7 original project partners.
Ø   July 2000 -The program was then opened up to all CAUL members (all Australian universities).
Ø  The original 7 partners will continue to guide and advise the national group in their role as the ADT Steering Committee.



(1) User Interface – Common Web Browser



(2) Enhanced access - search engines and free association of terms; hypertext linking



Search Types:
Basic Search
Advanced Search
Latest Search (History)



hypertext linking



(3) MetaData



Fulltext available

(80% free access)



Browse:
-         Author
-          Title
-          School/Department



(5) Value-added Services

(i) Search Tips



(ii) Feedback



(iii) Standards



(iv) View cart (selected records)



(iv) View cart (selected records)


References

Australasian Digital Theses Program (ADT).  http://adt.caul.edu.au/

Buckland, M. (1992), Redesigning Library Services: A Manifesto, American Library
               Association, Chicago, IL.
Rusbridge, C. (1998), “Towards the hybrid library”, D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 4 No. 7, pp. 40-5,
             available at: www.dlib.org/dlib/july98/rusbridge/07rusbridge.html
Suber, Peter. (2004). Open access overview : focusing on open access to peer-reviewed
            research articles and their preprints. http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/overview.htm.

Waters, D.J. (1998). What are digital libraries? CLIR Issues, July/August. URL:http://www.clir.org/pubs/issues/issues04.HTML